Paul Moody, iai-cfa
Paul Moody currently works as a full-time Forensic Imaging Specialist in Palm Beach County and has been working in the field of Forensic Imaging for over 20 years. Along with years of experience, Moody has received some of the most professional training the field has to offer; This training includes courses offered during the yearly conferences at the International Association for Identification (IAI), Forensic Imaging courses from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), and training completed at the FBI Academy in Quantico. Moody has been a certified Forensic Artist with the IAI since 2007, and currently serves on the Forensic Art Certification Board.
Autumn krick, iai-cfa
Inv. Krick currently works full-time as a sworn Forensic Imaging Investigator in Palm Beach County with nearly 10 years of experience in the field and over 250 forensic cases.
Inv. Krick holds a Bachelors degree in Fine Arts and a Masters degree in Public Administration; She has trained in sketch compositry, post-mortem and cranio-facial reconstruction, age progression, facial anatomy, image modification, injury & death investigations, crime scene, forensic anthropology, and morphological facial comparisons.
Inv. Krick is certified as a Forensic Artist with the International Association for Identification and has been since 2015.
Frequently asked questions
Forensic Imaging- also known as Forensic Art- is defined by Karen T. Taylor as “any art that aids in the identification, apprehension, or conviction of criminal offenders, or that aids in the location of victims, or identification of unknown deceased persons”. There are typically four main categories associated with Forensic Imaging:
- Suspect Composites – Graphic images made up from a combination of individually described component parts into a holistic representation of the suspects perceived appearance by the victim or witness of the crime.
- Image Modification and Image Comparison – Methods of photo enhancement and manipulation such as in age progression cases; morphological comparisons between probe images and images of possible suspects also fall into this category.
- Craniofacial & Postmortem Approximations- These are the methods used to aid in the identification of human remains through the process of creating a rendering meant to represent the victim in life.
- Demonstrative Evidence – Visual aids for case presentations in a court of law.
While each department may have their own policies and procedures regarding the use of forensic artists, they should follow generally accepted practices and procedures in the field. The International Association for Identification (IAI) is currently the only certifying forensic association in the world for forensic artists and has put together a comprehensive guideline for aspiring and working forensic artists. The IAI provides valuable information regarding acceptable training, procedures, and protocols for any and all practicing forensic artists. This is a great source of information for anyone interested in the field.
In order to evaluate effectiveness the term has to be defined as it pertains to the environment it is being evaluated in. In other words, sketch composites in real world situations are considered successful when they illicit a tip that leads to the identity of the offender regardless of how similar the sketch appears to the offender. It is because of this that even a less than ideal sketch composite when compared to the offender can still be a successful one, it only takes one person to recognize even the smallest thing and call in a tip!
As far as actual scientific literature- Several studies and surveys exist regarding composite systems (systems designed to allow users to create composites from pre-made facial features – primarily designed for departments without access to a forensic artist), however, there is actually very little research regarding sketch composites, and no known surveys regarding their effectiveness in actual criminal cases. It is interesting that sketches have been used for over a century to generate suspect leads, but there does not appear to have been any systematic review of how effective they have been. Controlled studies suggest that sketch composites are superior to composite systems (Laughery & Fowler, 1980) indicating an impressive recognition rate of 71% (Laughery & Smith, 1978). While there is no simple answer to determine effectiveness, there are many personal accounts of success which have been published world wide by prominent Forensic Artists in the field; Our own cases have had many successful outcomes leading to the identification and arrest of the criminal offender. You can view some of our successes and decide for yourself whether sketch composites can be an effective tool!
In 1945 Dr. Wilton Krogman, an anthropologist, took on a project of predicting the skull/face relationship. In 1946 he developed a system that used a series of landmarks on specific points of the human skull to determine average tissue depth thicknesses for the appropriate racial group of the remains. His techniques created a strong foundation for future studies in the field and has led to decades of research regarding tissue depth thicknesses, prediction of the nose from the bony aperture, eye size and placement, muscle & ligament attachments and more. In addition to understanding current research, feature prediction methods, and having professional training in craniofacial reconstruction; a professional FA will seek out all available information and may request additional support from a variety of forensic related fields. An FA may request evaluations of the remains from the medical examiners office or a forensic anthropologist – other report requests include: forensic dental charts, police reports, DNA (phenotype) report, and crime scene photos. All of the available information is combined together and help determine possible hair color or length, clothing, jewelry or other details. Careful measurements of the skull are taken and observations of bony landmarks help determine feature placement and the overall appearance of the deceased. View our Identified page to see how these reconstructions look compared to the actual identified victim.
If you would like more information about Forensic Art as a field, refer to the IAI’s website. https://www.theiai.org/forensic_art.php
For more information regarding missing persons or unidentified remains a great place to start is the National Missing & Unidentified Database (NAMUS) http://www.namus.gov
For more information on missing children check out the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NMEC) http://www.missingkids.org
For information about Morphological comparisons and facial identification procedures for one to one comparisons, check out the following websites:
Fear the Artist website is dedicated to promoting unidentified cases in an effort to obtain public help with identification. Help Us Identify!
The nature of criminal investigations are dynamic and often require a Forensic Artist to draw both quickly and accurately. This practice video was provided by Duncan Way, IAI-CFA, and is a perfect example of how a quick and anatomically accurate composite is made.
Facial Recognition or Facial Identification?
What is the difference between facial recognition (FR) and facial identification (FI)? Which is the best fit for your needs within law enforcement? Both FR and FI can be useful investigative tools but the two serve very different functions. Want to learn more? The Facial Identification Scientific Working Group (FISWG) has put together comprehensive documents explaining in great detail identification methods, training, and standard operating procedures within the field.
Physical Evidence can not be intimidated. It does not forget. It sits there and waits to be detected, preserved, evaluated, and explained.
HERBERT LEON MACDONELL
Lost but not forgotten! Our artists have created Facial approximations to represent the faces of the deceased who remain unidentified.
Take a look at some of our successful cases! From skull reconstruction and post-mortem approximations to sketch composites and comparisons!
Keep up to date with recent media releases about our composites and reconstructions!